guide to Internet sources on Mass Media and Conflict
compiled by Alessia Montanari (May 2005)
in this guide does not imply an endorsement by INCORE of the views
expressed in any of these sources. If you have a complaint about this
guide or believe that we have omitted a relevant source please read
about the guides before writing to us. You may find that this
will answer some of your questions. This includes a warning about
the type of information included in the guide, information about our
'criteria for inclusion' in the guides and about our 'updating and
The Brookings Institution, one of Washington's oldest think tanks,
is an independent, non-partisan organization devoted to research,
analysis, and public education with an emphasis on economics, foreign
policy, governance, and metropolitan policy.
Last year, The Brookings Institution launched a weekly discussion
series on news media issues growing out of the current anti-terrorism
campaign. It was also a forum to consider other media matters that
relate to the current crisis, such as the use of new media technology
and the economics of providing adequate war coverage. Project homepage
and discussions archive address is: http://www.brookings.edu/GS/Projects/Press/Press.htm
On June 17, 2003 Brookings Institution organized the discussing
panel "Assessing Media Coverage of the War in Iraq: press reports,
pentagon rules, and lessons for the future", completely transcribed
in PDF version, available on:
Centre for Digital Democracy
The Center for Digital Democracy is committed to preserving the
openness and diversity of the Internet in the broadband era, and
to realizing the full potential of digital communications through
the development and encouragement of noncommercial, public interest
Centre for Media and Democracy
The Center for Media and Democracy is a non-profit organization
that works to strengthen democracy by promoting media that are "of,
by and for the people" - genuinely informative and broadly
participatory - and by removing the barriers and distortions of
the modern information environment that stem from government- or
corporate-dominated, hierarchical media.
One of its Sourcewatch Project's research area is "War propaganda",
collecting articles and comments on:
- Al Hurra: http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Al_Hurra
- American Forces Radio and Television Service: http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=American_Forces_Radio_and_Television_Service
- Jessica Lynch: http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Jessica_Lynch
- Judith Miller: http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Judith_Miller
A section of the web site is dedicated to Arab Networks (especially
al-Jazeera and al Arabia), that played a crucial role in Iraqi War
coverage, counterbalancing Western media: http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Al_Jazeera
for Media and Public Affairs - CMPA
The Center for Media and Public Affairs (CMPA) is a non-partisan
research and educational organization which conducts scientific
studies of the news and entertainment media. Online archive of its
magazine articles Media Monitor provides readers with useful information
and links related to media coverage on wars and related issues.
European Journalism Centre
The European Journalism Centre (EJC) is an independent, international,
non-profit institute dedicated to the highest standards in journalism,
primarily through the further training of journalists and media
professionals. Building on its extensive international network,
the Centre operates as a facilitator and partner in a wide variety
of training projects.
FAIR, an US media watch group, has been offering well-documented
criticism of media bias and censorship since 1986. It works to invigorate
the First Amendment by advocating for greater diversity in the press
and by scrutinizing media practices that marginalize public interest,
minority and dissenting viewpoints.
FAIR's issue area "War and Militarism collect a detailed series
of articles dealing with media representations of wars, focusing
both on 9/11 consequences and on other regional conflicts (for example:
Free Press is a national nonpartisan organization working to increase
informed public participation in crucial media policy debates, and
to generate policies that will produce a more competitive and public
interest-oriented media system with a strong nonprofit and noncommercial
Its "war and peace issues" section is online available:
Institute for War and Peace Reporting (IWPR)
The Institute for War & Peace Reporting strengthens local journalism
in areas of conflict. By training reporters, facilitating dialogue
and providing reliable information, it supports peace, democracy
and development in societies undergoing crisis and change.
Media Matters for America
Media Matters for America is a Web-based, not-for-profit, progressive
research and information centre dedicated to comprehensively monitoring,
analyzing, and correcting conservative misinformation in the U.S.
media. Launched in May 2004, Media Matters for America put in place
the means to systematically monitor a cross section of print, broadcast,
cable, radio, and Internet media outlets for conservative misinformation
-- news or commentary that is not accurate, reliable, or credible
and that forwards the conservative agenda -- every day, in real
Media Research Centre
The mission of the Media Research Center is to bring balance and
responsibility to the news media. Through the MRC's implementation
of a large and comprehensive media monitoring operation in the world,
the MRC serves as the checks and balances on the Fourth Estate.
A special section entitled "Media War Watch" is entirely
focused on media conflicts' coverage analyses US media attitude
towards war, especially after 9/11:
Media Tenor is dedicated to objective, continuous monitoring of
international media content day after day. It analyses deferent
media sources (press, tv, internet
) from the United States,
Europe, Israel, South Africa, the Arab Countries and Asia.
A special section is daily focusing on media coverage of Iraqi War.
- The Middle East Media Research Institute
The Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI) explores the Middle
East through the region's media. MEMRI bridges the language gap
which exists between the West and the Middle East, providing timely
translations of Arabic, Farsi, and Hebrew media, as well as original
analysis of political, ideological, intellectual, social, cultural,
and religious trends in the Middle East. Founded in February 1998
to inform the debate over U.S. policy in the Middle East, MEMRI
is an independent, non-partisan, non-profit, 501 (c)3 organization.
MEMRI's headquarters is located in Washington, DC with branch offices
in Berlin, London, and Jerusalem.
- Middle East Research and Information Project
MERIP is a non-profit, non-governmental organization based in Washington,
DC. A completely independent organization. Established 32 years
ago, the original conception of MERIP was to provide information
and analysis on the Middle East that would be picked up by the existing
media. Since 1996, MERIP has maintained one of the most informative
websites on Middle East politics, culture and society.
The Project for Excellence in Journalism is an initiative by journalists
to clarify and raise the standards of American journalism. PEJ pursues
the aim of clarifying standards by bringing journalists together
to decide for themselves what their purpose and aims are. Amidst
its resources there are books, articles and research papers about
all the tools of journalism (for example: war, coverage of the war
on terror, embedded journalists).
A whole and detailed section has been provided in order to inform
readers about media coverage on Iraqi war:
European Institute for the Media
A think tank which analyses media and communications development
in the Europe of the digital age and advises policy makers, governments
and other social groups on the improvement of freedom of media in
all parts of Europe, on the constituents of the future "civil
digital society" and on the prosperity and social well-being
within the evolving new media economy. The European Institute
for the Media operates with a global perspective including the co-operation
with institutions on other continents.
American Free Press
It is a populist American weekly newspaper that reports what the mainstream
media usually do not talk about. Continuously updated news refer to
Iraqi war and to Middle East crisis, while the archive provides readers
with rich analysis of past events related to war and media coverage.
CounterPunch is the bi-weekly muckraking newsletter edited by Alexander
Cockburn and Jeffrey St. Clair. Twice a month it brings readers
the stories that the corporate press never prints.
The archive and the book section could be useful links to deepen
research on media & conflict.
This American, independent News Programme hosted by award-winning
journalists Amy Goodman and Juan Gonzalez allows audience to access
perspectives rarely heard in the U.S. corporate-sponsored media.
Its "War and Peace Report" is wholly committed to deal
with Bush Administration Strategy to face international Terrorism.
Middle East Intelligence Bulletin
Middle East Intelligence Bulletin (MEIB) is a free monthly publication,
dedicated to providing informed analysis of political and strategic
developments in Lebanon, Syria & the Middle East. It is jointly
published by the United States Committee for a Free Lebanon and
the Middle East Forum.
A publication by the Centre for Media and Democracy, dedicated
to investigative reporting on the public relations industry. It
serves citizens, journalists and researchers seeking to recognize
and combat manipulative and misleading PR practices.
News Agencies' Web Sites
AlterNet is a project of the Independent Media Institute, a non-profit
organization dedicated to strengthening and supporting independent
and alternative journalism. Since its inception in 1998, it provides
readers with crucial facts and passionate opinions they could not
find anywhere else.
- Central Asia and Southern Caucasus Freedom of Expression Network
A news portal of dedicated to covering daily media news from 10
countries of the region: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan, Iran, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.
It is a voluntary association of public organizations, called to
protect freedom of expression and press in the region, according
to Article 19 of the Universal Human Rights Declaration.
Common Dreams is a national non-profit citizens' organization working
to bring progressive Americans together to promote progressive visions
for America's future. Founded in 1997, we are committed to being
on the cutting-edge of using the internet as a political organizing
tool - and creating new models for internet activism.
A thematic research through its online archive, regarding "media
coverage" or "media in wartime" could provide the
reader with a full list of related American and international newspaper
Founded in 1996, this web site was conceived as a "home"
for well-reported stories not welcomed in the conventional news
media. Fighting for honest information is the way Consortium News
adopts to strengthen American democracy.
A relevant section of the archive analyses Media Crisis:
Exile Images - established in 2001 - is a documentary photo library
/ agency based in the UK. We currently represent fourteen established
photojournalists. The library has extensive and expanding coverage
from more than fifty countries.
Independent Media TV
Independent Media is designed to be an independent media outlet
for views and artistic expression which are currently not being
represented by our corporate media. With no influence from business
and government, it has various areas of focus and numerous sections
related to media & conflict:
- Top stories ignored by U.S. media: http://www.independent-media.tv/gtheme.cfm?ftheme_id=2
- Media Lies and Right Wings Bias: http://www.independent-media.tv/gtheme.cfm?ftheme_id=4
- media Censorship and Control: http://www.independent-media.tv/gtheme.cfm?ftheme_id=40
- 9/11 and War on Terror: http://www.independent-media.tv/gtheme.cfm?ftheme_id=1
- Iraq: http://www.independent-media.tv/gtheme.cfm?ftheme_id=5
- Israeli Palestinian Middle East Conflict: http://www.independent-media.tv/gtheme.cfm?ftheme_id=8
MediaChannel is a media issues supersite, featuring criticism, breaking
news, and investigative reporting from hundreds of organizations
worldwide. MediaChannel offers news, reports and commentary from
our international network of media-issues organizations and publications,
as well as original features from contributors and staff.
- Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty is a private, international communications
service to Eastern and South-eastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus,
Central and South-western Asia, funded by the U.S. government. Concentrating
on events within this complex region, RFE/RL provides balanced,
reliable information to bolster democratic development and market
economies in countries where peaceful evolution to civil societies
is of vital national interest to the United States.
A detailed section of the RFE/RL Archive is dedicated to "Media
Matters" and contains articles concerning events and trends
related to freedom of the press (media censorship, imprisonment
of journalists, closure of media outlets and problematic press laws).
With partners in over 30 countries, this campaign works to strengthen
local capacity to monitor and protest institutional and informal
censorship. It develops standards to advance media freedom, assist
individual to speak out and campaign for the free flow of information.
Committee to Protect Journalists
The Committee to Protect Journalists is an independent, non-profit
organization founded in 1981. We promote press freedom worldwide
by defending the right of journalists to report the news without
fear of reprisal.
Digital Freedom Network
Digital Freedom Network (DFN) is a non-profit group that seeks to
promote human rights as an attainable goal for all countries. It
believes that free enterprise, limited government, rule of law and
individual freedom are the most effective means to ensure the rights
of men and women across the world.
Center for Public Integrity
The Center for Public Integrity is a non-profit, non-partisan, tax-exempt
organization that conducts investigative research and reporting
on public policy issues in the United States and around the world.
Founded in 1998 by Charles Lewis, it hopes to serve as an honest
broker of information - and to inspire a better-informed citizenry.
Center for War, Peace, and the News Media
The Center for War, Peace, and the News Media (CWPNM) is a non-profit,
non-partisan organization dedicated to supporting journalists and
news organizations in their efforts to sustain an informed and engaged
global citizenry. The Center is headquartered at the New York University
Department of Journalism and Mass Communication, where it was founded
Articles and Special Reports
and After: How the War on Terrorism has Changed the News Agenda,
Network Television, June-October 2001" (2001) in Project of
Excellance in Journalism, November 19, 2001.
Reporters: What Are Americans Getting? PEJ looks at embedding"
(2003) in project of Excellance in Journalism, April 3, 2003.
TV's Wars News: Fox News Channels and Embedded Reporters Excelled,
while Peter Jennings and Peter Arnett Flunked" (2003) in MRC's
Report Card on War Coverage, Media Research Center, Alexndria, April
vs Palestinians: TV News Coverage of the Second Intifada" (2002),
in Media Monitor, Vol. XV, n. 4, Center for Media and Public Affairs,
Washington, July/August 2002.
Lynch: The Media Mith-Making in the Iraq War" (2003), Project
of Excellance in Journalism, June 23, 2003.
go to War: Tv News Coverage of the War in Iraq" (2003), in
Media Monitor, Vol XVII, n. 2, Center for Media and Public Affairs,
Washington, July/August 2003.
on Terrorism: the Not-So-New Television News Landscape" (2002),
in Project of Excellance in Journalism, May 23, 2002.
Bear, M. j.
and Hall, Jane (2005) "Media Coverage of the War in Iraq",
American University School of Communication, March 17, 2005.
S. (2002) "The Dangers of Disinforamtion in the War on Terrorism:
'we actually put out a false message to mislead people'", in
The Center for Public Integrity, February 2, 2002.
Forum (2001) "The Role of The press in the Antiterrorism Campaign:
What the Public Things of The New Coverage since September 11",
Project for Excellance in Journalism.
(2001) "Today's War Reporting: It's digital, but dangerous",
in The Christian Science Monitor.
(2003) "Terrorism scare used to censor press", in Jamaica
Gleaner, May 3, 2003.
(2004) "The Great Media Breakdown", in Mother Jones, November/December
and Goodman David (2005) "Why Media Ownership Matters"
in Seattle Times, April 3, 2005.
(2004) "The Pro-Agenda War", in Inter Press Service, July
(2003) "The Media and the Myths of War", in The Nation,
April 30, 2003.
W. (2001) "Who will Count the Dead? US Media Fail to Report
Civilian Casualties in Afghanistan", in Media Alliance.
(2002) "Perspective on Wars: Different Cultures, Different
Coverage", in Columbia Journalism Review, April/May 2002.
Hughes, John (2001) "Pentagon and press can do both their job",
in The Christian Science Monitor.
front pages Sept. 12, 2001
(1999) "Journalism with Teeth: the disinformation campaign",
in The Center for Public integrity, July 17, 1999.
(2001) "The Disinformation Campaign: Western media follow a
depressive familiar formula when it comes to the preparation of
a nation for conflict", in The Center for Public Integrity,
October 14, 2001.
Mariella (2001) "The Untold Threat of propaganda", in
(2001) "Reporting the war on terrorism: a UK perspective",
in Reporting the World.
(2004) "Patriot Game, media Shame", in Globe and Mail,
July 29, 2004.
(2003) "Watching the War on al-Jazeera" in London Review
of Books, Vol 25, n. 8, April 2003.
(2003) "Exclusive: US Military Document Outlines War Coverage",
in Editor & Publisher.
(2004) "Our Lies Led us into War", in the Guardian, July
(2001) "Media modesty versus meltdown", in VitalSTATS.
(2004) "CBS: No News, Just Stenography", in The nation,
September 29, 2004.
(2005) "In Iraq War, the 'Truth' Sometimes Hurts", in
Editor & Publisher, April 1, 2005.
(2001) "Afghan prison massacre: Americans media accounts differ
from other sources", in WorkingForChange.
(2004) "The Media Culpability for Iraq", in Znet Daily
Commentaries, October 9, 2004.
(2003) "One War, Two Channels: a Young Arab-American Keeps
one Finger on the Remote", in Columbia Journalism Review, May/June
(2005) "Shooting the Messenger: the real issue in the Eason
Jordan controversy is the US military killings of journalists in
Iraq", in The Nation, March 7, 2005.
(2004) "Iraq Scandals: Media Failures Next", in MediaChannel,
July 19, 2004.
(2004) "Are Media Covering their Errors or Covering Them Up"
in Media Channel, August 16, 2004.
(2001) "The War for Public Opinion", in AlertNet.
(2005) "How the U.S. Military Threatens Journalists",
in Truthout, February 24, 2005.
A special link is: http://www.questia.com, an on line library dealing with peace and conflict issues. One of its research topic, "Media in wartime", allows readers to access to a complete list of related books and papers: http://www.questia.com/Index.jsp?CRID=media_in_wartime&OFFID=se1&KEY=war_media.
Allen, Tim and Seaton, Jean eds. (1999) The Media of Conflict: War Reporting and Representations of Ethnic Violence, Zed Books, 256.
Artz, Lee and Kamalipour, Yahya R. eds. (2005) Bring 'em on: media and politics in the US war on Iraq, Lanham MD, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Baroody, Judith Raine (1998) Media access and the military: the case of the Gulf War, Lanham MD, Oxford: University Press of America, 239.
Bateman, Robert L. (2003) No Gun Ri: a military history of the Korean war incident, Mechanicsburg Pa., Stackpole Books, 302.
Bhattacharya, Sanjoy (2001) Propaganda and Information in Eastern India, 1939-45: a necessary weapon of war, Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 242.
Boyne, Walter (2003) Operation Iraki freedom what went right, what went wrong and why, New York, Forge.
Committee to Protect Journalists (2004) Attacks on the Press in 2003, Committee to Protect Journalists, 400.
Denton, Robert E. Jr. ed. (1993) The Media and the Persian Gulf War, Westport Conn., London, Praeger, 302.
Fracassi, Claudio (2003) Bugie di Guerra: l'informazione come arma strategica, Milano, Mursia, 267.
Greenberg, Bradley S. and Gantz Walter eds. (1993) Desert Storm and the Mass Media, Cresskill N.J., Hampton Press, 447.
Hess, Stephen (1995) International News and Foreign Correspondents, Brookings Institute Press, Washington, 209.
Hess, Stephen and Kalb Marvin (2003) The Media and the War on Terrorism, Brookings Institution Press, Washington, 320.
Heukenkamp, Ursula (2001) Schuld und Sühne? Kriegserlebnis und kriegsdeutung in deutschen medien der nachkriegszeit (1945-1961), Amsterdam, Rodopoi, 827.
Hoskins, Andrew (2004) Televising War: from Vietnam to Iraq, London, Continuum, 148.
Ivanovic, Zivota (texts selected by) (1994) The Media War against the Serbs, Belgrade, Republic of Serbia: Ministry of Information: TANJUNG, 111.
Jertz, Walter (2001) Krieg der Worte-Macht der Bilder: manipulation oder Warheit im Kosovo-Konflict?, Bonn, Bernard & Graefe, 140.
Kamalipour, Yahia R. and Snow, Nancy (2004) War, Media and Propaganda: a Global Perspective, Lanham MD, Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield, 261.
Keeble, Richard (1997) Secret state, silent press: new militarism, the Gulf and the modern image of warfare, Luton, University of Luton Press, 222.
Kolar-Panov, Dona (1997) Video, war and the diasporic imagination, London, Routledge, 270.
Leslie, Paul ed. (1997) The Gulf War as popular entertainment: an analysis of the military-industrial media complex, Lewiston N.Y, Lampeter, E. Mellen, 56.
Miller, David ed. (2004) Tell me lies: propaganda and media distortion in the attack on Iraq, London, Pluto, 310.
Mirzoeff, Nicholas (2005), Watching Babylon: the war in Iraq and global visual culture, London, Routledge, 208.
Morley, Patrick (1997) "This is AFN!": the American Forces Network in World War Two, Sandford, P. Morley, 50.
O'Donoghue, David (1998) Hitler's Irish voices: the story of German radio's wartime Irish service, Belfast, Beyond the Pale, 236.
Pena Rodríguez, Alberto (1998) El gran aliado de Franco: Portugal y la Guerra Civil espanola: prensa, radio, cine y propaganda, Sada, A Coruna, Edicios do Castro, 511.
Quesney, Chantal (2001) Kosovo-les mémoires qui tuent: la guerre vue sur internet, Québec: Presses de L'université Laval, Paris, Harmattan, 211.
Rotberg, Robert I. and Weiss, Thomas G. (1996) From Massacres to Genocide: The Media, Public Policiy and Humanitarian Crisis, Brookings Institution Press, Washington, 203.
Sadkovich, James J (1998) The U.S. Media and Yugoslavia, 1991-1995, Westport Conn., London: Praegen, 272.
Schecter, Danny (2003) Embedded-weapons of mass deception: how the media failed to cover the war in Iraq, Amherst N.Y., Prometheus Books.
Schecter, Danny (2003) News at a time of terror: dissecting media coverage after 9/11, Lanham MD, Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 256.
Shaw, Martin (1996) Civil society and media in global crises: representing distant violence, London, Pinter, 212.
Taylor, Philip M. (1998) War and the media: propaganda and persuasion in the Gulf War, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 340.
Thomson Mark (1999), Forging war: the media in Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia, Hercegovina, Luton, University of Luton Press, 388.
Tumber, Howard and Palmer Jerry (2004) Media at war: the Iraq crisis, London, SAGE, 204.
Virilio, Paul (2002) Desert screen: war and the speed of light, London, Continuum, 148.
Winter, James (1992) Common cents: media portrayal of the Gulf War and other events, Montreal/New York, Black Rose Books, 274.