guide to Internet sources on Gender and Conflict
compiled by Alessia Montanari (June 2005)
in this guide does not imply an endorsement by INCORE of the
views expressed in any of these sources. If you have a complaint
about this guide or believe that we have omitted a relevant
source please read our information
about the guides before writing to us. You may find that
this will answer some of your questions. This includes a warning
about the type of information included in the guide, information
about our 'criteria for inclusion' in the guides and about
our 'updating and additions policy'.
in the Military
Professional Women's Association
The Army Women's Professional Association began in 1988 as an informal
organization of about ten women officers to stimulate networking
among Army women in the Washington, DC area. During 1991, the informal
membership developed an interest in formalizing the organization.
on Women in the NATO Forces
Advises NATO leadership and member nations on critical issues affecting
women in the Alliance's Armed Forces. The Committee is mainly aimed
at promoting gender equality in terms of recruitment and employment,
training and development and quality of life.
Dept Advisory Committee on Women in the Services
Established in 1951, the DACOWITS composed of civilian women and
men who are appointed by the Secretary of Defense to provide advice
and recommendations on matters and policies relating to the recruitment
and retention, treatment, employment, integration, and well-being
of highly qualified professional women in the Armed Forces. Annual
reports and researches' outcomes are online available.
Online since 1996, this site is a meeting place for military women
to exchange information to their military experience and to offer
firsthand information to women thinking about a military career.
The National Organization for Women (NOW) is an organization of
feminist activists in the United States. The "Women
in the Military" section Includes action alerts and
articles on various issues affecting women in the military.
for Women Veterans
The main goal of this association is to assess women veterans'
services on an ongoing basis, to ensure that VA policy and planning
practices addresses the needs of women veterans and foster VA participation
in general Federal initiatives focusing on women's issues.
Army Womens Museum
The Museum website offers visitors an historical photo-gallery
on women in the armed force and stories about notable women, providing
also link to interesting related sites.
in the Armed Forces
Detailed bibliography by Air University Library, including books,
documents and periodicals on the subject on women in the armed
The WMA is a non-profit veterans association comprised of women
who have served or are serving in the United States Marine Corps
regular or reserve components.
The Women In Military Service For America Memorialis a no-profit,
charitatable organization and the only major national memorial
honoring all women who have defended America throughout history.
The Women's Memorial Foundation offers, students and teachers a
comprehensive kit of materials and activities about the women who
make up more than 220 years of varied service to the nation's defense.
of Women for Peace
The Coalition of Women for Peace has become one of the leading
voices in Israel advocating for a just and viable peace between
Israel and Palestine. The Coalition brings together independent
women and nine women's peace organizations It is a mix of Jewish
and Palestinian women, who take action to amplify the voices of
women calling for peace and justice for all inhabitants of the
This is the list of the members of the organization:
- Bat Shalom
- The Fifth Mother
- Machsom Watch
- Noga - Feminist Journal
- Women in Black: http://www.womeninblack.org
- New Profile
- TANDI - Movement of Democratic Women for Israel
and Peace Studies
A detailed bibliography compiled by Jody Rank in 1996.
Set up in 1996 in Geneve and supported by UNDF, Femmes Africa Solidarite
focuses on promoting and strengthening the role of African women
in preventing, managing and resolving conflicts.
Women's best practices and case studies on Niger, Liberia, Burundi,
Sierra Leone, Chad and Tunisia are online available:
Launched in April 2004, this peace campaign is diorected at four
main aims: show solidarity with Arab women in the Middle East,
change the perception of international community, raise supports
for a move towards peace and justice and raise funds for a counselling
centre in Ramallah.
and Peacebuilding Working Group
The GPWG is a network supported by the Canadian Peace-building
Coordinating Committee, designed to strengthen collaboration among
Canadian organizations, activists, and academics, by providing
a forum for the exchange of resources, facilitating dialogue between
and among civil society and government and contributing to the
direction of programming and policy.
River Women's Peace Network
In May 2000, under the auspices of the Economic Community of West
African States (ECOWAS), a group of African women coming from Guinea
Liberia and Sierra Leone decided to start promoting together their
participation in the process of preventing and managing conflicts
and restoring peace in Africa.
This aim has been pursued through a range of activities (trainings,
summits, mobilization and awareness-raising campaigns, dialogue
), spreading also peace values through an online
journal, Voices of Peace (http://www.marwopnet.org/voicesofpeace.htm)
- Working for Peace
The National Organization for Women (NOW) is the largest organization
of feminist activists in the United States. Since its founding
in 1966, NOW's goal has been to take action to bring about equality
for all women. Its "Working for Peace "section includes
NOW's Progressive Feminist Agenda for Peace, reports about current
international conflicts and archive sources on women's role in
Set up in 1994 after a meeting in Brussels, The Jerusalem Link
is the coordinating body of two independent women's centers: Bat
Shalom-The Jerusalem Women's Action Center (http://www.batshalom.org),
located in West Jerusalem, and Marcaz al-Quds la l-Nissah-The Jerusalem
Center for Women (http://www.j-c-w.org),
located in East Jerusalem. The two organizations share a set of
political principles, which serve as the foundation for a cooperative
model of co-existence between our respective peoples.
Africa Network for Peacebuilding - Women in Peacebuilding
WANEP's work began in 1990 to establish a regional network of peace-building
initiatives in West Africa.
WIPNET (Women in Peace-building Network) is one of its current
main programmes, examining avenues through which West Africa women
can play more functional roles in peacebuilding. A core objective
of this program is to enable women to transform the negative image
of 'helpless victimhood' to a positive and more assertive image
of stakeholders and active participants in the pursuit for peace
in their communities.
Women Building Peace
This international campaign launched by International Alert (http://www.international-alert.org)
in 1999 with the support of over 200 women's organizations, has
contributed to the placing the issues of women, peace and security
firmly onto the international agenda. It includes case studies
on women peace-builders in Ethiopia, Northern Ireland, Cambodia
Gender & Peacebuilding Programme is the Programme developed
by Women Building Peace Campaign, ensuring that gender perspectives
inform the implementation of regional and national peace and security
and development policies in troubled countries.
Set up in 1994 following the example of women's engagement in the
peace process in Northern Ireland, this association involves mainly
Swiss women interested in changing people's idea of "enemy",
in order to reduce conflicts. It launches peace actions and campaigns,
supporting projects in Marocco, Israel/Palestine and Russia.
Action for New Directions
WAND empowers women to act politically to reduce violence and militarism,
and redirect excessive military resources toward unmet human and
Commission for Refugee Women and Children
The Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children works to
ensure that refugee and displaced women, children and adolescents
are given protection, encouraged to participate, and have access
to education, health services and livelihood opportunities.
Annual summaries, newsletter and an updated thematic reports list
are online available (http://www.womenscommission.org/reports/index.shtml).
International League for Peace and Freedom
Founded in 1913 in The Hague (Netherlands) by some 1300 women protesting
the killing and destruction of the war, it is now a large and established
organisation that highlights a range of issues including peace,
human rights and economic justice.
It Incorporates The Peace Women Project, committed at monitoring
and working towards a rapid and full implementation of United Nations
Security Council Resolution 1325, on women, peace and security
Among its online publications, there are Booklets, reports and
newsletter referring to current issues and women's engagement in
An initiative of the Women and Public Policy Program at Harvard's
Kennedy School of Government and Hunt's Alternatives. Women Waging
Peace connects women addressing conflict around the world in the
belief that they have a role to play, "in preventing violent
conflict, stopping war, reconstructing ravaged societies, and sustaining
peace in fragile areas around the world".
Main issues of analysis are "conflict prevention", "peace
negotiation" and "post-conflict reconstruction".
A full list of WWP's publications is online available (http://www.womenwagingpeace.net/content/resources.asp#pub).
UNIFEM (The United Nations Development Fund for Women) portal on
women, peace and security (http://www.womenwarpeace.org/index.htm),
dealing with a wide range of issues, including peacekeeping, peace-process,
prevention, reconstruction (http://www.womenwarpeace.org/issue.htm).
and Reconciliation in Northern Ireland. (International
Governmental and Non-governmental Organisations)
International (Stop Violence Against Women Campaign)
Women and War is one of the issues this campaign is focusing on,
addressing women both as victims of conflict and violence and as
important leaders in peace talks and reconstruction.
Amnesty International campaign to stop violence against women,
especially in armed conflicts.
for Women;s Rights in Conflict Situations
The main focus of the Coalition's work is to promote the adequate
prosecution of perpetrators of crimes of gender violence in transitional
justice systems, in order to create precedents that recognise violence
against women in conflict situations and help find ways to obtain
justice for women survivors of sexual violence. Special sections
report on Rwanda, Sierra Leone and former Yugoslavia.
Provides extensive information on women's human rights developments
around the world.
Close attention is paid to thematic issue "Women in Armed
Conflict, International Justice", focusing on conflict situations
(Sudan, Iraq, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sierra Leona, Rwanda,
Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Afghanistan).
Related publications are online available: http://hrw.org/doc/?t=women_conflict
MADRE is an international women's human rights organization that
works in partnership with women's community-based groups in conflict
areas worldwide. Our programs address issues of armed conflict
and forced displacement, women's health and reproductive rights,
economic justice and community development, indigenous peoples'
rights and resources, food security and sustainable development,
human rights advocacy, youth, and US foreign policy.
Currently, MADRE is sustaining the following programmes:
- LIMPAL: since 1997 it has worked with women who have been displaced
by Colombia's long-standing armed conflict, helping them overcome
the devastating effects of displacement and advocate for their
- Organization of Women's Freedom in Iraq: OWFI is working to provide
a sanctuary from violence for Iraqi women, who cite the lack of
personal security as the greatest problem they face in post-invasion
- The Ibdaa Cultural Centre: it is a community centre established
in the Dheisheh refugee camp (Palestine), developing educative
programmes for children and providing families with medical treatment
Oxfam International is a confederation of 12 organizations working
together with over 3000 partners in more than 100 countries to
find lasting solutions to poverty, suffering and injustice.
Close attention is continuously paid to conflict zones and emergencies,
usually faced thanks to the cooperation with local aid agencies
and women's groups.
Currently, some of the main regional crisis are:
- Sudan: http://www.oxfam.com/eng/programs_emer_sudan.htm
- Iraq: http://www.oxfam.com/eng/programs_emer_iraq.htm
- Liberia: http://www.oxfam.com/eng/programs_emer_liberia.htm
- Dem. Republic of Congo: http://www.oxfam.com/eng/programs_emer_liberia.htm
(Women and Culture of peace Programme)
Women and a Culture of Peace Programme is part of the UNESCO's
transdisciplinary Project "Towards a Culture of Peace",
established in 1996 and aimed at supporting women's initiatives
for peace and public participation in political processes all around
Division for the Advancement of Women - UNDAW
Grounded in the vision of equality of the United Nations Charter,
the Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) advocates the improvement
of the status of women of the world.
The United Nations agency dealing with refugees and displaced people
in conflict areas pays great attention to women as victim
of wars, developing specific policies and providing links
to UN and NGO websites, documenting the role of women in
conflicts and in conflict resolution.
The Women's Edge Coalition, a non-partisan organization, was created
in 1998 to advocate for the needs of millions of women and poor
people around the worldin the context of unfair global trade.
Among the topic issues the organization is engaged with, there
- Women and war: http://www.womensedge.org/pages/regionsandissues/issue.jsp?id=59
- Women, conflicts and peace-building: http://www.womensedge.org/pages/referencematerials/reference_material.jsp?id=6
- Rebuilding Iraq and Afghanistan: http://www.womensedge.org/
and Research Institutes
Set up in 1992 as a specialised gender and development research
and information service within the Institute of Development
Studies (IDS), United Kingdom (UK), Bridge supports gender
mainstreaming efforts of policymakers and practitioners by
closing the gaps between theory, policy and practice with
accessible and diverse gender information.
Bridge also researches "Gender, Conflicts and Emergencies": http://www.bridge.ids.ac.uk/reports_gend_con_em.htm.
Ireland - Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN)
This site contains information and source material on 'the Troubles'
in Northern Ireland from 1968 to the present.
One of the Key issues analysed deals with Women in the conflict,
continuously updating a detailed list of reports and online sources
focusing on women's role in Northern Ireland Peace Process.
Main aim of this online course is to contribute incorporating an
understanding of gender issues in the work of groups involved in
Peace Support Operations (PSO).
Bibliographic resources and reports are online available: http://www.genderandpeacekeeping.org/resources-e.asp
Established in 1983, The Minerva Center is an educational and research
corporation for the study of women in war and women and the military.
Since its formation, it has focused on publication, publishing
two periodicals: MINERVA: Quarterly Report on Women and the Military
and Minerva's Bulletin Board (www.minervacenter.com/period.htm).
The site is also provided with a detailed bibliography on women
in the Military (www.minervacenter.com/bibs_main.htm)
Research and Education Institute
Since 1977, Women's Research & Education Institute is committed
to non-partisan information and policy analysis on women's equity
issues. WREI's mission is to identify issues affecting women and
their roles in the family, workplace, and public arena, and to
inform and help shape the public policy debate on these issues.
Since 1989, WREI has monitored the status of women in the U.S.
armed forces, examining the roles and responsibilities of females
in all uniformed professions. Links to a comprehensive bibliography,
statistics, facts and significant events concerning women in armed
force are online available.
Set up in 1965 as an autonomous body within the United Nations,
The United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)
enhances the effectiveness of the UN through appropriate
training and research.
UNITAR has developed a Training Programme for Civilians Personnel
in UN Peacekeeping Operations entitled "The Special Needs
of Women and Children in and after Conflict": http://www.unitar.org/wcc
Established in 1976 in the Dominican Republic, INSTRAW has carried
out research and training activities on different topics at national,
regional and international levels, always cooperating with governments,
civil society and UN system.
Human Rights Resources
WHRR is a free, accessible online library of international women's
rights law. The purpose of the WHRR web site is to help researchers,
students, teachers, and human rights advocates locate authoritative
and diverse information on women's international human rights via
One of its database research area deals with "Women and Armed
offering updated information on related articles, documents and
It is a non-profit educational corporation dedicated to telling
the stories of women, whose contributions have been ignored or
minimized in traditional histories. Particular attention is paid
to Women's Military History.
the Needs of Women Affected by Armed Conflicts (2004), ICRC.
American Women and the Military (2000), GenderGap.org
Zillah (2004) Sexual Humiliation, Gender Confusion and the
Horrors at Abu Ghraib, Women's Human Rights Net.
Vanessa (2003) The Importance of a Gender Perspective to successful
disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes, UNIDIR
R., Angela (2003) Women, Leadership and Gender Integration
in the Canadian Combat Arms. A qualitative Study, Defence R&D
Kippenberg, Juliane (2005) Seeking Justice: the Prosecution of
Sexual Violence in Congo War, Human Rights Watch.
Marques, Nadejda (2003) Struggling Through Peace: Return and Resettlement
in Angola, Human Rights Watch
Obando, Ana Elena (2003) The Right to peace, Women's Human Rights
Rehn, Elisabeth and Johnson Sirleaf, Ellen (2003) Women, War and
Peace: The Independent Experts' Assessment on the Impact of Armed
Conflict on Women and Women's Role in Peace-building, UNIFEM.
Niamh (2003) War and Armed Conflicts, Women's Human Rights
1325/2000 (2000), United Nations Security Council
Bello, Caroline (2003) Refugees and Internally Displaced, Women's
Human Right Net
Sculier, Caroline (2003) Every Day Victims: Civilians in the Burundian
War, Human Rights Watch
and Gender-based Violence against Refugees, Returnees and Internally
Displaced Persons (2003) United Nations High Commission for
Sikoska, Tatjana and Solomon, Juliet, Introducing Gender in Conflict
and Conflict Prevention: Conceptual and Policy Implications, INSTRAW.
and Peace and Security: Report of the Secretary General, (2004),
Women in the Armed Forces (2002), The Employment of Women in the
Armed Forces Steering Group
Women, Peace and Security (2002), United Nations.
Warriors (2000), GenderGap.org
Militarism and Armed Forces
This web site is a blog by a soldier, dubbed "American Soldier",
who continuously posts reports about his experience in the U.S
Army, especially after 9/11.
The site provides links to similar sources online.
for Young Men's StudiesINCORE's
research centre examining the effects of violence and post-conflict
socio-economic issues on young men in Northern Ireland. http://www.incore.ulster.ac.uk/about/specialist/cyms
Analytical Service Agency - DASA
DASA was launched in July 1992 to provide professional analytical
and statistical services and advice to the UK Ministry of Defence
(MoD), and defence-related statistics to Parliament, other Government
Departments and the public.
Statistics regarding the percentage of male/female personnel employed
in the UK Armed Forces and Armed Forces Suicide Reports are online
It is an online encyclopedia on gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender
and queer culture.
Among the issues GLBTQ analyses, a special focus is dedicated to:
- US Military Law: http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/military_law_us.html
- European Military Culture: http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/military_law_us.html
- US Military Culture: http://www.glbtq.com/social-sciences/military_culture_us.html
This portal is aimed at providing information for American soldiers,
dealing with current issues and Army news.
Based in Northern Ireland and officially launched in September
1998, at its heart is the aim of increasing awareness of the issues
facing local men and boys and promoting their social inclusion.
The official US Army web site provides information on a wide range
of topic related to military forces and national security.
Soldiers and American troops are both the main addresses and the
core issue: special sections are dedicated to soldiers stories,
tributes and Army images.
and Militarism Program
The Program works to reduce the impacts of war and military institutions
on young people's lives, supporting those who refuse to participate
in militarism, walking away from war and violence.
Interesting issues analysed are Gays & Lesbians and the Military
and Women and the Military: http://webarchive.afsc.org/youthmil/issues.htm
into Men and Violence
Prisoners and prisoners conditions are continuously monitored by
Amnesty International reports focusing on regional conflicts:
Guantanamo Bay: http://web.amnesty.org/wire/April2002/guantanamo
Since its foundation, one of the core issues HRW has focused on
is "Prisons and the treatment of Prisoners". Detailed
reports and analysis have been carried out on human rights violations
commonly inflicted to prisoners, international organizations' action
to stop abuses, comparative studies by region and issue.
Masculinity and Gender Relations in Development
This web site provide online reports of a series of 5 seminars
co-ordinated by Dr Frances Cleaver of The Development and Project
Planning Centre, in partnership with The School of Development
Studies (University of East Anglia), The Institute of Development
Studies (University of Sussex) and Oxfam, over a period of 21 months
between September 1998 and June 2000.
Seminar 4, dealing with violence and gender issues, focused mainly
on Militarism in Uganda and on East Timor crisis as core case studies.
NGO supporting the development of work with men through projects,
resources, publications, training and consultancy.
Some of current projects it is developing concern "18-30 Years
Old Refugee Men", an eye on Ethiopian Refugees fled in a Support
Centre, "Old Warren Partnership (Northern Ireland)",
a leadership programme for young men, predominantly in protestant
areas, and "Young men and Violence", a report launched
in 2003 to evaluate a related project in Belfast.
Action Northern Ireland
YouthAction Northern Ireland is a voluntary youth organisation
which works to enable young people to achieve their full potential.
YA offers support, training and resources to local workers and
community groups working with young men, investing funds also in
developing a project on "Young men and Violence" in Northern
Organisations for Peace/Non-violence
Friends Service Committee
The American Friends Service Committee carries out service, development,
social justice, and peace programs throughout the world.
It has developed the "Youth and Militarism Progam", working
to reduce the impacts of war and military institutions on young
people's lives. Aims to halt the influence of the military in US
schools, helping students and educators work for peace and better
education in their communities and supporting those who refuse
to participate in militarism. Conscientious objection and counter-recruitment
More information on Military recruitment, soldiers' life and alternatives
to the Army are online available: http://webarchive.afsc.org/youthmil/Default.htm
Them Home Now
Campaign of military families, veterans, active duty personnel,
reservists and others opposed to the ongoing war in Iraq, demanding
an immediate return of all US troops.
Veterans Against the War
Iraq Veterans Against the War (IVAW) is a group of veterans who
have served since September 11th, 2001 (including Operation Enduring
Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom). They believe that the governments
that sponsored these wars are indebted to the men and women who
were forced to fight them and must give their Soldiers, Marines,
Sailors, and Airmen the benefits that are owed to them upon their
Men Stopping Violence is a social change organization dedicated
to ending male violence against women.
Men's International Peace Exchange
The Men's International Peace Exchange (MIPE) brings together women
and men to foster peaceful beliefs, attitudes and behaviors for
us to move from cultures which support men in being violent to
ones which support men in being peaceful.
The mission of the Men's Resource Center of Western Massachusetts
is to support men, challenge men's violence, and develop men's
leadership in ending oppression in themselves, families and communities.
It is aimed at supporting men to overcome the damaging effects
of rigid and stereotyped masculinity, and simultaneously confront
men's patterns of personal and societal violence and abuse toward
women, children, and other men.
Against Iraq War
Veterans Against Iraq War is a coalition of American veterans who
support US troops but oppose war with Iraq or any other nation
that does not pose a clear and present danger to American people
and the States.
Founded in 1985, Veterans For Peace includes male and female veterans
from World War II, Korea, Vietnam, the Gulf War, other conflicts
and peacetime veterans.
Areas of main concern deal not only with Iraqi war, but also with
other troubled countries affected (nowadays or in the past) by
war: Central America, Colombia, Vietnam. Korea
Chris (2003) Does War Reinforce a Dominant Notion of masculinity?,
El-Bushra, Judy (2002) Focused in Combat: Gender Relations and
Armed Conflicts, id21 Research
Enloe, Cynthia (2000) Masculinity as Foreign Policy Issue, InFocus,
Vol. 5, N. 36.
away with Torture. Command responsibility for the U.S. of Detainees
(2005), Human Rights Watch
Matthews, Lloyd J. and Pavri, Tinaz eds. (1999) Population Diversity
and the US Army, Strategic Studies Institute
Road to Abu Ghraib (2004), Human Rights Watch
Truscott, Susan and Wait, Tracey (1996) Military Family Violence
and Violence against Women: Causes and Incidence, Department of
National Defence Canada
Men and Violence Report (2003), Working with Men
Questia is the world's largest online collection of complete books,
journals and articles in the humanity and social sciences.
The Men's Bibliography is a comprehensive and up-to-date bibliography
of writing on men, masculinities, gender, and sexualities.
Full bibliographic link are provided on:
- War and the military: http://mensbiblio.xyonline.net/violence2.html#Warmilitary
- Men's anti-violence education and activism: http://mensbiblio.xyonline.net/violence2.html#Antiviolenceactivism
Human Rights Resources
Section on "Books Details" provides a detailed list of
texts concerning women in conflict situations, women as victims
of war and women's role in peace-management and post-war reconstruction.