Addis Ababa Agreement concluded at the first session of the Conference
on National Reconciliation in Somalia, 27 March 1993
After long and costly years of civil war that ravaged our country, plunged it into famine, and caused acute suffering and loss of life among our people, there is the light hope at last. progress has been made towards the restoration of peace, security and reconciliation in Somalia.
We, the Somali political leaders recognize how vital it is that this process continue. It has our full commitment.
By our attendance at this historic Conference, we have resolved to put an end to armed conflict and to reconcile our differences through peaceful means. We pledge to consolidate and carry forward advances in peace, security and dialogue made since the beginning of this year. National reconciliation is now the most fervent wish of the Somali people.
We commit ourselves to continuing the peace process under the auspices of the United Nations and in co-operation with the regional organisations and the Standing Committee of the Horn as well as with our neighbours in the Horn of Africa.
After an era of pain, destruction and bloodshed that turned Somalis against Somalis, we have confronted our responsibility. We now pledge to work toward the rebirth of Somalia, to restore its dignity as a country and rightful place in the community of nations. At the close of the Holy Month of Ramadan, we believe this is the most precious gift we can give to our people.
The serenity and shade of a tree, which according to our Somali tradition is a place of reverence and rapprochement, has been replaced by the conference hall. Yet the promises made here are no less sacred or binding.
Therefore, we, the undersigned Somali political leaders, meeting at Africa Hall in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia between 15 and 27 March 1993, hereby reaffirm our commitment to the agreements signed during the Informal Preparatory Meeting on National Reconciliation in January 1993.
In concord to end hostilities and to build on the foundation of peace for reconstruction and rehabilitation in Somalia, we agree to proceed within the framework of the following provisions and decisions:
- Disarmament and security:
- Affirm that uprooting of banditry and crime is necessary for peace, stability,
security, reconciliation, reconstruction and development in Somalia;
- Further affirm that disarmament must and shall be comprehensive, impartial
- Commit ourselves to complete, and simultaneous disarmament throughout
the entire country in accordance with the disarmament concept and timeframe
set by the Cease-fire Agreement of January 1991, and request that UNITAF/UNOSOM
assist these efforts so as to achieve a substantial completion of the disarmament
within 90 days;
- Further reiterate our commitment to the strict, effective and expeditious
implementation of the Cease-fire Disarmament Agreement signed on 8 and
15 January 1993;
- Reaffirm our commitment to comply with the requirements of the Cease-fire
Agreement signed in January of 1993, including the total and complete handover
of weapons to UNITAF/UNOSOM;
- Urge UNITAF/UNOSOM to apply strong and effective sanctions against those
responsible for any violation of the Cease-fire Agreement of January 1993;
- Stress the need for the air, sea and land borders of Somalia to be closely
guarded by UNITAF/UNOSOM in order to prevent any flow of arms into the
country and to prevent violation of the territorial waters of Somalia;
- Further stress the need for maximum Cupertino by neighbouring countries
to assure that their common borders with Somalia are not used for the movement
of weapons in Somalia, in keeping with the United Nations arms embargo
- Agree on the need to establish an impartial National and Regional Somali
Police Force in all regions of the country on an urgent basis through the
reinstatement of the former Somali Police Force and recruitment and training
of young Somalis from all regions, and request the assistance of the international
community in this regard.
II. Rehabilitation and reconstruction:
- Affirm the need to accelerate the supply and operation of relief, reconstruction
and rehabilitation programs in Somalia;
- Welcome the conclusion of the 'Third Co-ordination Meeting on Humanitarian
Assistance to Somalia;
- Express our appreciation to donor countries for their continued humanitarian
assistance to Somalia and, in particular, for the generous pledge, made
at the Third Co-ordination Meeting, to mobilize $142 million for relief
and rehabilitation efforts in Somalia;
- Call upon UNOSOM, aid agencies, and donor countries to immediately assist
in the rehabilitation of essential public and social services, and of necessary
infrastructure, on a priority basis by the end of June 1993;
- Assure the international community of the full desire of the Somali leaders
to establish with the assistance of UNSCOM, a secure environment for relief,
reconstruction, and rehabilitation operations for the protection of relief
and rehabilitation workers and supplies;
- Condemn the acts of violence committed against relief workers and all
forms of extortion regarding humanitarian operations;
- Urge the organisations within the UN system and NGO's to effectively
utilize Somali human resources in the rehabilitation and reconstruction
process in Somalia
III. Restoration of Property and Settlement of Disputes
- Affirm that all disputes must henceforth be settled by dialogue, negotiations,
and other legal and peaceful means;
- Further affirm that all private or public properties that were illegally
confiscated, robbed, stolen, seized, embezzled, or taken by other fraudulent
means, must be returned to their rightful owners;
- Decide to deal with this matter within the framework specified in the
report of the committee on the peaceful settlement of disputes.
IV. Transitional mechanisms:
The Somali people believe that there is concurrence
among the people of Somalia that Somalia must retain its rightful place in the community of nations and that they must express their political views and make the decisions that affect them. This is an essential component of the search for peace.
To achieve this, political and administrative structures in Somalia need to be rebuilt to provide the people as a whole with an opportunity to participate in shaping the future of the country.
In this context, the establishment of transitional mechanisms which prepare the country for a stable and democratic future is absolutely essential. During the transitional period, which will last for a period of two years effective from the date of signature to the agreement, the emphasis will he upon the provision of essential services, complete disarmament, restoration of peace and domestic tranquillity and on the attainment of reconciliation of the Somali people. Emphasis will also be put on the rehabilitation and reconstruction of basic infrastructure and on the building of democratic institutions. All of this will prepare the country to enter a constitutional phase in which the institutions of democratic governance, rule of law, decentralization of power, protection of human rights and individual liberties, and the safeguarding of die integrity of the Somali Republic are all in place.
Therefore we have agreed to a broad outline of a framework for a transitional system of governance to allow for the provision of essential services, the creation of a basis for long-term planning, and for the resumption of greater administrative responsibility by Somalis. In general terms, this system will be composed of four basic administrative components that will be mandated to function during the transitional period.
Taking into account the reality of the situation in Somalia today and the need for stability, we hereby agree to the establishment of the following four basic transitional organs of authority:
1. The Transitional National Council (TNC)
The TNC will:
- be the repository of Somali sovereignty;
- be the prime political authority having legislative functions during
the period in question;
- interact, as appropriate, with the international community, including
- appoint various committees, including the Transitional Charter Drafting
Committee, as required;
- appoint Officers for its various functions;
- appoint the heads of administrative departments;
- oversee the performance of the departments created; and
- establish an independent judiciary.
The TNC shall he composed of:
- three representatives from each of the 18 regions currently recognized,
including one women from each region;
- five additional seats for Mogadishu;
- one nominee from each of the political factions currently participating
in the first session of the National Reconciliation Conference;
2. The Central Administrative Departments (CADS)
The TNC will appoint the heads of the Central
Administrative Departments, whose prime function will be to re-establish and operate the departments of civil administration, social affairs, economic affairs and humanitarian affairs, paving the way for the establishment
and operation of a formal government. All CADs shall comprise skilled professionals having the ability to reinstate gradually, the administrative functions of national public administration. The performance of these departments will be overseen by the INC.
3. Regional Council (RCs)
Regional Councils shall he established in all the existing 18 regions of Somalia. At present 18 regions shall be maintained during the transitional period. The Regional Council shall be entrusted primarily with the task of implementing humanitarian, social and economic programs in co-ordination with the TNC and will also assist in the conducting of an internationally-supervised census. The Regional Councils will liaise with UNOSOM II, UN specialized agencies, NG0s and other relevant organizations directly and through the Central Administrative Departments and Transitional National Council. The Regional Councils shall also be responsible for law and order at the regional level. In this regard, the law enforcement institution will be a regional police force and a regional judiciary. The District Councils (see below) in each region shall send representatives who will constitute the Regional Councils.
4. District Councils
District Councils shall be established in the present districts in every region. District council members shall be appointed through election or through consensus based selection in accordance with Somali traditions. The District Councils shall be responsible for managing the affairsof the district including public safety, health, education and reconstruction.
The Conference agreed on the appointment, by the TNC, of a Transitional Charter Drafting Committee referred to in section IV 1 (d) above. In drafting the Transitional Charter, the Committee shall be guided by the basic principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and by Somali traditional ethics.
The Conference agreed
that the TNC shall appoint a 'Peace Delegation" composed
of political movements and other social elements to travel to all parts of
the country for the purpose of advancing the peace and reconciliation process
as well as to explain the agreements reached in Addis Ababa.
We further agree that the TNC shall appoint a National Committee to bring about
seek solutions to outstanding political problems with the SNM.
The Conference also calls upon the international community and in particular on neighbouring states to facilitate the noble effort at reconciliation by providing moral and material support.
In conclusion, we the undersigned in agreeing to the above, resolve that never again will Somalia suffer the tragedy of the recent past. Emerging from the darkness of catastrophe and war, we Somalis herald the beginning of a new era of peace, healing and rebuilding, in which co-operation and trust will overcome hatred and suspicion. It is a message we must pass on to our children and our grandchildren, that the proud Somali family, as we knew it, can once again become whole.
We, the undersigned, hereby pledge to abandon the logic of force for the ethic of dialogue. We will pursue the process of national reconciliation with vigour and sincerity, in accordance with this declaration and with the co-operation of the people of Somalia as a whole.
Recognising the tragic and painful recent history of problems in our country, we pledge to achieve comprehensive national reconciliation through peaceful means. We also pledge to adopt, in all parts of Somalia, transitional measures that will contribute to harmony and healing of wounds among all the people of Somalia.
We invite the Secretary - General of the United Nations and his Special Representative in Somalia, in accordance with the mandate entrusted to them by the Security Council, to extend all necessary assistance to the people of Somalia for the implementation of this agreement.